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The smart diode array - collaborations

The proposed structure of the Mu3e pixel detector.
A possible structure of the pixel detector for sLHC.
3D layout of nine SDS-pixels implemented in 65nm UMC process made by Gds2Pov software.
Test-beam results: MIP spectrum - single pixel SNR of 27 has been measured.
CAPSENSE radiation tolerance - after irradiation with protons to 1015 neq/cm2, a SNR of 53 has been measured for the high energy beta-particles, even at +10C.

We are developing the SDA sensors since 2006. In the first proof-of-concept stage, the development was supported by Baden-Württemberg Stiftung.

Since 2011 SDAs have the first applications: The technology is the main option for the pixel detector of the planned Mu3e experiment at PSI (Switzerland). Two 50-micrometer thin detector layers with 200 million pixels are planned. This project is supported by the Enable Fund of the Faculty for Physics and Astronomy and by the Institute for Computer Engineering, both University of Heidelberg. The development is conducted in collaboration with Faculty for Physics and Astronomy University of Heidelberg (Group Prof. Dr. Andre Schöning), PSI and several other institutions (Mu3e collaboration).

Thanks to its high radiation tolerance, the SDA technology represents an interesting option for sLHC upgrades or CLIC detector readout. This development is conducted in collaboration with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of Bonn, CERN and CPPM Marseille (HVCMOS collaboration).

SDA sensors have also been proposed for the Panda Luminosity Monitor at CBM. This development is conducted in collaboration with University of Mainz.

SDA - overview of the results

The results of the SDA development have been presented in seven reviewed papers, two proceeding papers and in 15 international conference and workshop talks.

Proof-of-concept period

The development in its "proof-of-concept" period (the general-purpose development for particle tracking) had three main directions:

1) The monolithic pixel detectors with small pixels and the pixel electronics which allow the frame-mode readout. (Possible applications: ILC, transmission electron microscopy, etc.) Four sensor prototypes have been implemented in three different technologies - AMS 350nm and 180nm HV-technologies and UMC 65nm LV-technology. A pixel size of only 2.5 x 2.5 micrometers has been achieved in the 65nm-process.

2) The monolithic pixel detectors with complex CMOS-based pixel electronics which allow in-pixel hit detection. (Possible applications: CLIC, LHC, CBM, etc.) Two sensor prototypes have been implemented in AMS 350nm HV-technology.

3) CCPDs based on a pixel sensor implemented as a smart diode array (see CCPD section). Two sensor prototypes in 350nm HV-technology.

Beam Tests

Several beam tests have been performed with good results. Nearly 98%-detection efficiency and a spatial resolution of almost 3 micrometers have been measured. Seed-pixel signal to noise ratio (SNR) is about 27; the most probable cluster signal is 2000 e. The imperfect efficiency can be explained by the effects of the rolling-shutter readout.


Irradiations up to 1015 neq/cm2 (protons), 1014 neq/cm2 (neutrons) and 50 MRad (x-rays) have been performed with very good results. The irradiated sensors still work with somewhat increased noise due to the increased leakage currents. After irradiation with protons, a good signal to noise ratio has been measured for high energy beta-particles, even at nearly room temperatures (10 C).

Development for Mu3e experiment

We have designed three sensor prototypes in AMS 180nm HV technology. The sensor pixels contain CMOS electronics based on charge sensitive amplifiers. The amplifier output signals are transferred to the readout cells at the chip periphery. An excellent signal-to-noise ratio and a fast detection speed have been measured.

Development for ATLAS and CLIC

We have designed a sensor prototype in 180nm AMS HV technology. The sensor can be used as a segmented strip detector and as a sensor for a CCPD. The first CCPD with FEI4 has been built.

Publication list

  • Design und Untersuchung eines Sensor Chips in 65nm CMOS Technologie
    Bachelor thesis
    Hanh Nguyen
  • Test system setup and evaluation of testbeam measurements of a novel monolithic pixel particle detector implemented in a high voltage technology
    Diploma thesis
    Christian Takacs
  • Active Pixel Sensors in high-voltage CMOS technologies for ATLAS
    I. Peric for HVCMOS Collaboration
    JINST 7 C08002 (2012)
  • Particle pixel detectors in high-voltage CMOS technology - New achievements
    I. Peric, Ch. Kreidl, P. Fischer
    Nucl. Inst. Meth. A 650, Issue 1, pp. 158-162 (2011)
  • The first beam test of a monolithic particle pixel detector in high-voltage CMOSTechnology
    I. Peric, Ch. Takacs, J. Behr, P. Fischer
    NIM A 628, Pages 287-291 (February 2011)
  • Large monolithic particle pixel-detector in high-voltage CMOS technology
    I. Peric, Ch. Takacs
    NIM A 624, Pages 504-508 (December 2010)
  • A novel pixelated monolithic particle detector implemented in high-voltage CMOS technology
    I. Peric
    Nucl. Instr. Meth. A582, 876 - 885 (2007)
  • Advanced Pixel Detectors for Scientific- and Medical Applications.
    I. Peric
    Habilitation thesis, Heidelberg University, Germany

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